A line of standardized natural extracts of β -Caryophyllene from black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
Endophyllene® is available in:
- Endophyllene-S (fluid and powder) derived from cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et. Perry);
- Endophyllene-P (fluid and powder) obtained by black pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.)
- FL fluid ideal for softgels, syrups and for all fluid preparations both nutraceutical and cosmetic;
- PWD powder ideal for tablets, capsules, pills, sachets.
BETA CARYOPHYLLENE (BCP) is a volatile vegetable compound found in large quantities in the essential oil of certain spices, such as black pepper and cloves.
BLACK PEPPER BERRIES (Piper nigrum L.) are commonly known for the presence of the pungent compound piperine.
However, the oil distilled from these berries is particularly rich in an extremely interesting sesquiterpene due to its properties: the β -caryophyllene.
The hydrodistillation process prevents the non-volatile piperine from being present in the final essential oil, thus avoiding side effects linked to this other bioactive compound commonly used for other applications.
CLOVES are the inflorescences of the species Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et. Perry (synonym of Eugenia caryophyllata) which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. Cloves are harvested mainly as unopened flower buds carried in clusters, which are then dried to produce the spice commonly known.
Volatile oil extracted from cloves isproduced from buds by hydrodistillation.
Scientific studies have indicated that clove oil can be used as an antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic agent; it is also suitable for digestive function by regulating gastrointestinal motility and gas elimination and it is also indicated for the wellness of the nose and throat having a balsamic effect and acting as an antioxidant.
The properties of the oil are due to the presence of numerous monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including in particular the bioactive compound β-caryophyllene (BCP).
BCP selectively binds to the binding site in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) called CP55.940 (i.e. the binding site of THC), leading to cell activation and anti-inflammatory effects. CB2 receptors are mainly found within the immune system. CB2 receptor ligands inhibit inflammation and edema formation (Iwamura et al., 2001, J Pharmacol Exp Ther 296: 420- 425), show analgesic effects (Ibrahim et al., 2005, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 3093-3098) and mediate protection against hepatic ischemia/hepatic reperfusion damage (Batkai et al., 2007, FASEB J 21: 1788-1800). In the gastrointestinal tract, CB2 receptor agonists prevent colitis by reducing inflammation (Kimball et al., 2006, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291: G364-371).
Recent studies have shown that (E)-β-caryophyllene significantly reduces oral cavity hyperalgesia, stimulates insulin production, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and reduces intracellular concentrations of triglycerides (Quintans-Junior et al. 2016 Life Sci. 149:34-41).
BCP is an endocannabinoid that does not bind to the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the central nervous system; therefore, it does not produce psychoactive effects. β-caryophyllene is defined as a dietary cannabinoid (Gertsch et al., 2008, PNAS, 105: 9099-9104).
Due to its weak aromatic flavor, BCP is often used commercially as a food additive and as a cosmetic product. BCP is an FDA-approved food additive and is ingested with food every day.
The main advantages of the different forms of Endophyllene®
Qualitative chemical characterization is based on gas-chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and authentication of (E)-β-caryophyllene while gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) is used for accurate quantification.
Endophyllene® is titrated and accurately standardized in β-caryophyllene, which allows accurate dosing in various galenic and nutraceutical preparations as it is available both in liquid form at higher concentration (80% w/w) and in powder form (30% w/w).